Originally (1068), the Casale di Santa Maria di Fasano lived in the shadow of the convent of Santo Stefano, whose abbots were competing with Conversano and Monopoli. In 1978 it rejected an attack by 300 Turkish pirates, the authors of ferocious forays along the coasts of Apulia. In memory of this event, on the occasion of the feast of the village's protectors, Saint Mary of Pozzo Guacito, and Saint John the Baptist, a historical procession takes place, called "Scamiciata". Around 1700, Fasano had some 7,000 inhabitants, including a well-established bourgeoisie of agricultural origin who managed its local agricultural resources very effectively.
Its grandiose past emerges from the excavations of the ancient settlement, with its walls, the acropolis with a temple, the port and the lower town, which included, among others, two early-Christian basilicas, dwellings and shop, the forum, small chapels, kilns and tombs. The local National Archaeological Museum, whose premises also hold a large Messapic chambered tomb and the necropolis, hosts a great number of artefacts.